Year 2 Middle English Poetry Develop your skills in the close reading and critical analysis of Middle English poetry, focusing on set passages from three important fourteenth century texts:
The original manuscript is known in academic circles as Cotton Nero A. However, the manuscript containing these poems was transcribed by a copyist and not by the original poet.
Although nothing explicitly suggests that all four poems are by the same poet, comparative analysis of dialect, verse form, and diction have pointed towards single-authorship. Gordonafter reviewing the text's allusions, style, and themes, concluded in He was a man of serious and devout mind, though not without humour; he had an interest in theology, and some knowledge of it, though an amateur knowledge perhaps, rather than a professional; he had Latin and French and was well enough read in French books, both romantic and instructive; but his home was in the West Midlands of England; so much his language shows, and his metre, and his scenery.
Erkenwaldwhich some scholars argue bears stylistic similarities to Gawain. Erkenwald, however, has been dated by some scholars to a time outside the Gawain poet's era. Thus, ascribing authorship to John Massey is still controversial and most critics consider the Gawain poet an unknown. Early editors, such as Morris, Gollancz and Osgood, took it for granted that the poem was an elegy for the poet's lost daughter presumed to have been named Margaret, i.
Garrettand W. Greene, were quick to point out the flaws in this assumption, and sought to establish a definitive allegorical reading of the poem. While there is no question that the poem has elements of medieval allegory and dream vision as well as the slightly more esoteric genre of the verse lapidaryall such attempts to reduce the poem's complex symbolism to one single interpretation have inevitably fallen flat.
More recent criticism has pointed to the subtle, shifting symbolism of the pearl as one of the poem's chief virtues, recognizing that there is no inherent contradiction between the poem's elegiac and its allegorical aspects, and that the sophisticated allegorical significance of the Pearl Maiden is not unusual but in fact has several quite well known parallels in medieval literature, the most celebrated being probably Dante 's Beatrice.
Besides the symbolic, on a sheer formal level, Pearl is almost astounding in its complexity, and generally recognized to be, in the words of one prominent scholar, "the most highly wrought and intricately constructed poem in Middle English" Bishop It is composed of stanzas of 12 lines each with the rhyme scheme a-b-a-b-a-b-a-b-b-c-b-c.
Stanzas are grouped in sections of five except for XV, which has sixand each section is marked by a capital letter in the manuscript; within each section, the stanzas are tied together by the repetition of a key "link"-word, which is then echoed in the first line of the following section.
The oft-praised "roundness" of the poem is thus emphasized, and the final link-word is repeated in the first line of the whole, forging a connection between the two ends of the poem and producing a structure that is itself circular. Alliteration is used frequently, but not consistently throughout the poem, and there are a number of other sophisticated poetic devices.
Prologue[ edit ] Sections I—IV stanzas 1—20 The narrator, distraught at the loss of his Pearl, falls asleep in an "erber grene" — a green garden — and begins to dream.
In his dream he is transported to an other-worldly garden; the divine is thus set in opposition to the terrestrial, a persistent thematic concern within the poem. Wandering by the side of a beautiful stream, he becomes convinced paradise is on the other shore. As he looks for a crossing, he sees a young maid whom he identifies as his Pearl.This article reports on a study that explored the relationship between reading proficiency and the cultural relevance of text for adolescent English language learners.
The author presents a rubric that was used to help determine cultural relevance. Participants used this rubric to rate the cultural relevance of 2 stories. Although the stories were at the same reading level, the participants.
an analysis of language shift; the transformation of the old, middle, and modern english pronouns muh.
Fathan Zamani The State Islamic University of Maulana Malik Ibrahim Malang Abstract English has been an unquestionable language since first appearance in ancient time which was known as Old English. Fifteen new essays that explore issues related to the editing and interpretation of Middle English literature.
These fifteen essays, all published here for the first time, explore issues related to the editing and interpretation of Middle English literature.
A History of the English Language - Elly van Gelderen - A Companion Site. Sample Texts. Several sample texts in Old, Middle, Early Modern, and Modern English are .
Welcome to the Luminarium Chaucer page. Here you will find a Chaucer Biography, Chaucer's Works, Quotes, Essays and Articles, as well as links to study resources and a list of books helpful for further study.
All of these can be accessed from the red navigation bar at the top. The sidebar on the. Study English at Goshen College In writing about literature or any specific text, you will strengthen your discussion if you offer specific passages from the text as evidence. Rather than simply dropping in quotations and expecting their significance and relevance to your argument to be self-evident, you need to provide sufficient analysis of.