Benzodiazepine dependence and Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome The potential for misuse among those taking it for medical reasons is controversial, with some expert reviews stating that the risk is low and similar to that of other benzodiazepine drugs. Long-term use causes adaptive changes in the benzodiazepine receptors, making them less sensitive to stimulation and thus making the drugs less potent. Recurrence of symptoms such as anxiety may simply indicate that the drug was having its expected anti-anxiety effect and that, in the absence of the drug, the symptom has returned to pretreatment levels. If the symptoms are more severe or frequent, the person may be experiencing a rebound effect due to the removal of the drug.
Vladan Starcevic Vladan Starcevic 8 Starcevic et al. Male and female patients did not differ significantly with respect to demographic characteristics, age of onset of panic disorder and AG, duration of PDA, and severity and frequency of symptoms experienced during panic attacks.
Women avoided more situations than did men, but this difference was not statistically significant. Women avoided buses and being in unfamiliar places alone significantly more often. The only situation that was avoided more often by men, although not signifi- cantly, was staying at home alone.
Women were significantly more likely to stay at home to avoid agoraphobic situations and significantly less likely to go outside of home alone. When going outside, women required a companion sig- nificantly more often.
There were significantly more married women than married men who required a spouse as a companion, and significantly more women with children than men with children who required a child as a com- panion.
Women thought that AG had affected the overall quality of their lives significantly more adversely. Cultural and psychological factors may be most likely to account for these findings.
Depres- sion and Anxiety 8: Comparison of Agoraphobia in Women and Men 9 panic symptoms and panic cognitions [Oei et al. In one study, however, female The study was conducted in the Day Clinic and agoraphobics reported a significantly greater fear of Anxiety Disorders Research Center of the Institute of several situations: Ninety-five crowded shops, and darkness [Hafner, ].
Another consecutive patients with PDA participated, 73 They were referred from agoraphobic situations could differentiate significantly their primary care physicians and other psychiatrists between women and men with AG.
Patients with a The higher prevalence of AG in women has usually history of psychosis or bipolar disorder did not par- been explained by cultural factors such as abiding by ticipate in the study because they do not seek help in traditional gender roles, which makes it more accept- our facility and are treated elsewhere.
Informed con- able for women than for men to become housebound sent was obtained after the nature of the procedures and for men to use alcohol as a means of coping with had been fully explained to patients. Patients with various Knowles, ].
The severity of tions imposed on women to go outside alone, which their illness was assessed by means of the Clinical Glo- makes it very difficult to diagnose AG in Indian bal Impressions CGI [Guy, ] using a 7-point women and distinguish it from the culturally ex- scale, from 1 to 7.
The SCID-I was also bic tendencies by taking alcohol and then by expos- used to establish the age of onset of panic disorder and ing themselves to phobic situations as if they did AG defined as the age when the corresponding diag- not have AG.
Interviews study was to compare the characteristics of AG in fe- lasted 1—3 hr. The kappa value for the diagnosis of male and male patients with PDA.Clinical Characteristics at Intake of Patients Diagnosed With Panic Disorder (PD) or Panic Disorder With Agoraphobia (PDA) Treatment Received At intake, patients with PDA were significantly more likely to be receiving psychiatric medication (67%) than those with PD (40%) (χ 2 = , df = 1, p.
Alprazolam, sold as the trade name Xanax among others, is a short-acting benzodiazepine—a minor tranquilizer. It is most commonly used as a treatment for anxiety disorders, specifically panic disorder or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).
Other uses include chemotherapy induced nausea, together with other treatments. GAD improvement occurs generally within a week.
Panic disorder with or without agoraphobia affects roughly % of Americans, and about 1/3 of this population with panic disorder have comorbid agoraphobia. It is uncommon to have agoraphobia without panic attacks, with only % of people with agoraphobia not presenting panic disorders as well.
Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.
The elevated mood is significant and is known as mania or hypomania, depending on its severity, or whether symptoms of psychosis are present.
During mania, an individual behaves or feels abnormally energetic, happy, or irritable. What is an anxiety disorder? Anxiety is a term used to describe a normal feeling people experience when faced with threat, danger, or when stressed.
Panic attacks may be a symptom of an anxiety disorder. Symptoms and signs include palpitations, shaking, and chest pain. Get the facts on causes and medications used in treatment.