Most have time frames that are way too broad for a CCOT question, and most need less choice being offered among the regions.
Many of the skills and strategies required for reading comprehension are already present in beginning readers in their ability to comprehend the spoken word. As with the spoken word, meaning is often deeper than a single word, single sentence, or even single paragraph.
Readers must make use of their existing knowledge to make the inferences necessary to uncover these deeper meanings Hirsch, However, while a beginning reader might possess a reasonably advanced listening comprehension ability there remains enough difference that reading education continues well beyond their education for listening and speaking.
Enough information is removed in the transition from experience and conversation to text that skills and strategies a reader might use when talking with peer or instructor are suddenly unavailable.
Because of this simply being able to decode the individual words, word meanings, and sentences including syntax is simply not enough to facilitate reading comprehension Adams Further, an international assessment found that only 8.
While instruction may end as early as fifth or sixth grade, issues with reading comprehension are not unique to youth populations. Once in college, coursework rarely focuses on reading comprehension despite college students spending the majority of their academically focused time reading and studying Shaw, Regardless of evidence for student difficulties, many professors expect that their students are already proficient in reading comprehension due to their academic level Shefield, R.
Increasingly, research has indicated the importance prior knowledge, or, all of the information a reader possesses prior to a reading task, has on reading comprehension. Further, a number of strategies for improving reading comprehension have been developed, ranging from bottom-up strategies of manipulating the text itself before the reader processes it to top-down strategies providing the reader with tools to actively apply to improve their comprehension.
An explicit understanding of a text is one in which a reader develops a shallow understanding of a text by processing exactly what the author says from the text in isolation from their prior knowledge and experience.
If the reader understands the deeper meanings of a text, beyond what the author directly states, they can be said to have an implicit understanding of the text. This perspective appreciates the bottom up flow of information as it is processed from the text itself and balances this with the top-down processing of this information by higher level strategies, which include the use of existing reader knowledge and the integration of new information with that knowledge.
Existing reader knowledge will be used in a top down manner to make inferences regarding the meanings and significance of unfamiliar terms and topics that are being processed upwards from the text.
The readers knowledge of the relationships between ideas will be used to draw connections between ideas in the text that are not explicitly stated as well as connections between new information in the text and their existing knowledge structures. During this task the reader will sort key words into categories representing relationships gleamed from the text.
Other popular strategies among instructors include essays, multiple choice questions, and vocabulary definitions. How does the text interact with prior knowledge and influence comprehension?
The prevailing method of differentiating between texts in discourse research is between genres, particularly between narratives and expository texts. Children are typically exposed to narrative type texts beginning from an early age.
Because of these differences in exposure and experience, particularly in regards to children, a great proportion of reading research has utilized narrative type text structures.
Unfortunately much less research has been conducted looking at reading, specifically reading comprehension and the meaning construction process, using informational nonnarrative type texts despite their importance in academic settings.
The integration of more formal education regarding expository text structures could prove worthwhile at earlier levels of reading instruction.
One of the primary differences between narrative and expository texts is their general content. The relationships and events of narrative stories are often intertwined through a rather limited set of causal and temporal events of which the reader has little difficulty connecting.
Conversely, expository texts are often read in the context of learning new material and thus often contain a large number of concepts and relations that are unfamiliar to the reader. Beyond the text genre and individual differences in readers there are a number of different text characteristics that will influence how easily the reader is able to construct a mental model of the information in the text and this, in turn, will impact their comprehension and the integration of new information with existing knowledge.
One of the more broad ways of looking at reading comprehension comes from an examination of the different mental representations the reader produces when reading a text.
These two factors, text-base representation and prior knowledge, can be broke down into a two by two graphic depiction of the mental representation produced by a reading task.
While various strategies and inferences made by the reader are going to have a large contribution in the construction of the text-base there are some factors beyond the readers control. For example the coherence of the text itself will influence the information acquired from the text as well as the way this information is organized and explained McKeown, A texts coherence is determined by the author based on the words they use to make clear the relationship between different ideas in the text as well as the way in which the author organizes the information in a text McKeown, In fact, text cohesion has been found to be a major contributor to a readers comprehension W.
Research has also found that increasing the cohesion of a given text can increase readers comprehension, Beck et al. Prior knowledge or background knowledge refers to all of the accessible pre-existing information a reader has stored in their long-term memory while topic-relevant prior knowledge refers to the readers pre-existing knowledge related to the specific main concepts and ideas of the specific text being read Shapiro, As noted earlier, the information in an individual text often assumes a certain amount of pre-existing knowledge and as such, tends to lack certain information that is necessary for the construction of coherent mental representations of the given text.
One of the big reasons topic-relevant prior knowledge has such a large impact on reading comprehension is because of this information gap. The lack of relevant information in the text requires the reader to fill this gap with information from their prior knowledge Kintsch, McKeown, Readers take advantage of the incomplete information in a text to identify and cue information from long term memory to fill in the gaps.
When the reader has the requisite prior knowledge this process allows them to rapidly access the relevant information contained in their long term memory with little effort.The use of prior knowledge in the construction of the reader’s mental representation can be divided into either a high use of prior knowledge or a low use of prior knowledge while the text-base representation produced by the reader can be described as high quality or low quality.
Aspects Of Organizational Learning: Four Reflective Essays Abstract This thesis presents my responses to questions posed by four professors with whom I studied while.
In addition, you will discuss your future leadership role and participation in professional organizations. Your paper is to be based on current literature, standards of practice, core competencies, and certification bodies for your chosen role.
The role of missions, therefore, became an institution equal to that of the Presidio(military fort) in the expansion of the Spanish Empire.
Spain's policies of conquest during this period encouraged a large degree of contact and conflict between Spaniards and Indians.
In this bitcoin essay, we will discuss Bitcoin and other types of cryptocurrency. The essay will include a definition of cryptocurrency, the history of cryptocurrencies, the emerging role of cryptocurrency in the economy, and the. 1. Discuss the differences between the demographics of the colonial South and the colonial North.
2. 2. Prior to , how did the role and status of Southern women compare to that of Northern women? 3. Essay Q's for all Tests.