The topics for this year: What can science do to help South Africa preserve and maximise its water resources?
Disease[ edit ] Scrofula is the term used for lymphadenopathy of the neck, usually as a result of an infection in the lymph Essay on tuberculosisknown as lymphadenitis. It can be caused by tuberculous or nontuberculous mycobacteria. In immunocompetent children, scrofula is often caused by atypical mycobacteria Mycobacterium scrofulaceum and other nontuberculous mycobacteria NTM.
With the stark decrease of tuberculosis in the second half of the 20th century, scrofula became a less common disease in adults, but remained common in children.
The mass is referred to as a "cold abscess", because there is no accompanying local color or warmth and the overlying Essay on tuberculosis acquires a violaceous bluish-purple color. As the lesion progresses, skin becomes adhered to the mass and may rupture, forming a sinus and an open wound.
Diagnosis[ edit ] Diagnosis is usually performed by needle aspiration biopsy or excisional biopsy of the mass and the histological demonstration of stainable acid-fast bacteria in the case of infection by M. Pathology[ edit ] The classical histologic pattern of scrofula features caseating granulomas with central acellular necrosis caseous necrosis surrounded by granulomatous inflammation with multinucleated giant cells.
Although tuberculous and nontuberculous lymphadenitis are morphologically identical, the pattern is somewhat distinct from other causes of bacterial lymphadenitis. Surgical excision of the scrofula does not work well for M. The best approach is to use conventional treatment of tuberculosis with antibiotics.
The cocktail-drug treatment of tuberculosis and inactive meningitis includes rifampicin along with pyrazinamideisoniazidethambutoland streptomycin "PIERS". Scrofula caused by NTM, on the other hand, responds well to surgerybut is usually resistant to antibiotics.
It is recommended that persons in close contact with the diseased person, such as family members, be tested for tuberculosis.
History[ edit ] The word comes from the Latin scrofula, meaning brood sow. In the Middle Ages it was believed that royal touchthe touch of the sovereign of England or France, could cure diseases owing to the divine right of sovereigns.
Henry VI of England is alleged to have cured a girl with it. Scrofula was therefore also known as the King's evil.
In England this practice continued until the early 18th century, and was continued by the Jacobite pretenders until the extinction of the House of Stuart with the death of the pretender Henry IX. King Henry IV of France is reported as often touching and healing as many as 1, individuals at a time.
Herbalist Nicholas Culpepper —is claimed to have treated his daughter for scrofula with lesser celandineand cured her within a week.
In the 18th century, Elizabeth Pearson, an Irish herbalist, proposed a treatment for scrofula involving herbs and a poultice and extract of vegetable, and inSir Gerard Noel presented a petition to the House of Commons advocating her treatment.
The book starts by listing the typical symptoms and indications of how far the disease had progressed. It then goes into detail with a number of case studies, describing the specific case of the patient, the various treatments used and their effectiveness.
The forty-second edition was printed in InFrench historian Marc Bloch wrote a book  on the history of the royal touch:The Essay Conclusion Paragraph: Words That Will Help You Emphasize Your Ideas.
Every knows that your concluding paragraph summarizes all of the information that you have just gone over, restates your thesis statement, and gives that reader additional studies that can be done to further the research but you would be amazed how many times the essay falls apart here because of wording.
 His claims about being raised on the family “homestead” in Virginia are many. See, for instance, Paul Bragg’s The Miracle of Fasting, edition, p. 64, Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that usually affects the lungs. Compared with other diseases caused by a single infectious agent, tuberculosis is the second biggest killer, globally.
The boarding schools had what came to be called the "half and half" system where students spent half of the day in the classroom and half at a work assignment or "detail" on the school grounds. Tuberculosis is a threatening infectious disease that kills two million people each year and threatens the lives of billions that are left infected (Tuberculosis: What is TB, ).
Essay on History of Tuberculosis: Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease known since antiquity and evidence of spinal TB in the form of fossil bones dates back to around BC.