Life[ edit ] Putnam was born in ChicagoIllinoisin His father, Samuel Putnamwas a scholar of Romance languages, columnist, and translator who wrote for the Daily Workera publication of the American Communist Partyfrom to when he became disillusioned with communism.
It is one of the most frequently cited works in the social sciences as it is a collection of theories and insights within structural — functional paradigm.
Merton studied under Talcott Parsons at Harvard and later became professor at Columbia. In this work consisting of almost pages, the author develops a theory of deviant behavior linked to various types of social adaptations.
Merton rejects the idea of grand theories for the discipline of sociology and introduces the notion of middle range theories falling between grand theories on one hand and narrow, empirical observation on the other.
|Sociology Postmodern theories of the family - A-Level Sociology - Marked by timberdesignmag.com||Just as the form of an axe is whatever enables it to cut, and the form of an eye is whatever enables it to see, the human soul is to be identified with whichever powers and capacities enable a natural, organized human body to fulfill its defining function, which, according to Aristotle, is to survive and flourish as a living, acting, perceiving, and reasoning being. So, Aristotle argues, the soul is inseparable from the body, and comprises whichever capacities are required for a body to live, perceive, reason, and act.|
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Like Durkheim, he focuses on objective facts and attempts to delineate objective consequences that are observable from subjective dispositions. He distinguishes latent functions from manifest functions based on functional analysis.
While both manifest and latent functions have objective consequences for the social system, the former are intended or recognized, the latter are not. Evidently, of all theorists of social structure, Merton perhaps made the greatest impact on empirical research.
Part I deals with Theoretical Sociology, its history and systematics. Manifest and Latent Functions p. Local and Cosmopolitan Influentials p. In the first part, Merton makes at least two important useful contributions in the field of sociology — the theories of the middle range and the manifest and latent functions.
He identifies two unacceptable trends within sociology that are narrow or radical empiricism focused just to collection of data without theorizing and abstract theorizing and consequently recommends sociological theories Essays functionalism family the middle range as a solution.
The introduction of Manifest and Latent functions in chapter III is designed to improve functional analysis.
Merton further discusses the relationship between theory and empirical research and their intimate links at length. Merton cautions against confusing sociological theory with five scientific activities including methodology, general sociological orientations, concepts, interpretations and statements of uniformities and recommends that these activities need to be distinguished from one another.
Merton analyzes sociological theory the function of which is to unify disparate empirical findings. In the discussion of social goals and anomie in chapter 6, Merton identifies causes of dysfunctions one among which is the conflict between cultural goals and institutional norms.
Some of the other landmark contributions that Merton makes in this work include contributions to the theory of reference group behavior and the concept of relative deprivation and self fulfilling prophecy. The concept of relative deprivation is related to the concept of reference group behavior in that the concept of relative deprivation is helpful in clarifying what according to Merton is counter intuitive, yet in the absence of a theory, according to Merton, concept alone cannot explain a phenomenon.
The theory of reference group therefore has greater explanatory value in understanding the notion of relative deprivation. In other words, it is a false definition of the situation attracting a response that makes the originally false conception real in outcome. S society has come to share certain characteristics with the European societies where the discipline originally developed with the consequence that sociology of knowledge has moved from periphery to the center of attention.
In Part IV of the book, Merton examines what he calls the norms of science, a set of basic values that govern scientific communities. These values according to Merton are universalism, communism, disinterestedness and organized skepticism.
Analysis of the Content: Thus, according to him both narrow empiricism and abstract theorizing as in Parsons must be replaced by middle range theories in sociological enquiry.
Merton explains the reasons for proposing middle range theories. Merton refers to these limited range theories as the middle range theories. A major concern that seems to engage Merton in Part I is the review of chief modes of analysis in functional reasoning.
So, Merton goes on to identify the major problems in functionalism theory and addressing the same. Merton is not satisfied that functionalism invariably sees contributions of practices to cultural system. The second issue with functionalism that he raises is the tendency to confuse subjective category of motive with the objective category of function.
He addresses these two issues in functional analysis with the introduction of analytical concepts of multiple consequences and the manifest and latent functions.
Merton argues against certain functional assumptions that he identifies as three postulates, that is, the postulate of functional unity of society, the postulate of universal functionalism and the postulate of indispensability p.
The introduction of manifest and latent functions that Merton introduces makes a distinct improvement in functional analysis.
The distinction between manifest and latent function, according to Merton is effective against confusion between conscious motivations for social behavior and its objective consequences.
While manifest functions are intentional and recognized, the latent functions are neither intended nor recognized. The unintended consequences can be functional, dysfunctional or non-functional.Three famous Malinowski essays!
Malinowski, one of the all-time great anthropologists of the world, had a talent for bringing together in single comprehension the warm reality of human living with the cool abstractions of science.
A short video I put together covering policies such as the One Child Policy, Welfare Benefits and Child Protection Laws.
The functionalist theory affects the views of an individual in a family in many ways. To me it makes them a more stable person, with more traditional views. Functionalism does not leave too much room for social change within a family.
Understanding Depression: Family Systems Theory - Depression is classified as a mood disorder by the DSM-IV () and is defined as a mental illness characterized by sadness, general apathy, a loss of self-esteem, feelings of guilt, and, at times, suicidal tendencies (Lexicon, n.d).
Functionalist View on Same-Sex Families Essay - Functionalist View on Same-Sex Families What is Functionalism. Functionalism is the belief that members of society form relationships with each other through rules and regulations i.e. the law. Introduction. Social Theory and Social Structure is a landmark work by Robert King Merton first published in It is one of the most frequently cited works in the social sciences as it is a collection of theories and insights within structural – functional paradigm.