What is claimed is: A method for determining whether an unknown microorganism is Neisseria gonorrhoeae comprising: The method in accordance with claim 1 wherein said fluid is selected from the group of fluids consisting of a buffer or saline. The method in accordance with claim 1 wherein said polymeric particles are selected from the group of particles consisting of polyolefins, polyacrylates, and polystyrenes.
Kinetoplastid protozoa were found in sieve tubes, and fruit of many plant species Parthasara- the fruits but not in the phloem or other plant tissues. Par- thy et al. At asites Lectin agglutination detected from the onset of fruiting.
Isolates first, there was considerable controversy concerning the were adapted to in vitro culturing in monophase media. It was initially The form and the structural organization was studied by thought that these parasitic protozoans were not particu- scanning and transmission electron microscopy.
The par- larly harmful, but evidence from a number of plants of asites showed an ultrastructural pattern similar to that of great economic significance, such as coffee Stahel other species of the genus Phytomonas. In tomatoes ex-coconut Pathasarathy etal. Three strains of Lectin agglutination of the ge- Trypanosomal infection in the tomato plant was first nus Phytomonas, isolated from different species of Eu- recognized by Gibbs inalthough it was not until phorbia E.
Our isolates were different from the was recognized Conchon et al. The parasite has a wide geographical range, in- similar behavior in the lectin-agglutination test suggest- cluding northern and central Africa and several European ing that these isolates have a common origin.
In this paper we desribe flagellate isolates from toma- Introduction to fruit grown in greenhouses and cherimoya fruit It has been known since Lafont that plants growing in southern Spain Andalusia.
After isolation may be parasitized by members of the family Trypanoso- and in vitro culture of these flagellates, we conducted ul- matidae, particularly by species of the genus Phytomo- trastructure studies, carried out experimental infection of other fruits, and characterized the parasite by lectin-ag- M.
Then, gl sam- Small sections of the fruits, roots, stems, and leaves were homoge- ples of flagellate suspension were mixed with an equal volume of nized in phosphate-buffered saline PBS and examined by phase- each lectin and plated on microtiter plates Flow Laboratories. Sample smears were fixed in methanol and After 1 and 3 h of incubation at room temperature, agglutination stained with Giemsa for light microscopy.
Results and discussion In vitro culture: During a survey in the provinces o f Malaga, Granada, Two culture media were tested: SDM medium as modified by Sfinchez-Moreno et al.
The matid flagellates in both tomato and cherimoya crops. Growth was assessed by cell counting in a Neubauer hemocytome- such signs. The external s y m p t o m s of the tomato plants ter and by light-microscope studies of cells fixed in methanol and varied, but, typically, a yellowing would spread from the stained with buffered Giemsa pH 7.
Stem Electron-microscope observation symptoms included swelling in the nodes and necrosis, which at times affected all the nodes successively and Parasites grown in SDM medium and Grace's medium were occassionally caused the petioles and leaves to break off.
The vessels weak- g for 10 rain and were then fixed for 2 h in a 2. The fixed cells were washed in the same preventing nutrient transport and impeding growth. After we found several diseases including fungus-like mildew, postfixation the cells were washed in buffer, dehydrated by ace- tone washes, and embedded in Epon Forbes et al.
Thin anthracnosis, fusariosis, at least one m y c o p l a s m a disease sections were stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate and ex- - stolbur, and at least four virus diseases: The flagellates could be L-lysine, postfixed in OsO 4, and dehydrated in a series of ethanol washes.
Finally, the preparations were dried with CO2, sputter- found only in the fruits, which showed deformations and coated with colloidal gold, and examined under a Zeiss EDX pigment alterations yellow spots in the pericarp. DSM scanning electron microscope equipped with a Kevex The cherimoya fruits showed s y m p t o m s similar to analysis system.
Within the fruits the flagellates were situated immediately under the pericarp in altered zones but rarely in other areas. Lectin-agglutination tests Working with tomatoes in Brazil, Kastelein and Ca- The following organisms were examined: We, on the other hand, detected significant ed from the coconut palm in which the disease hartrot develops numbers of the flagellates in our tomato and cherimoya Har; isolated by Menara et al.
To determine whether the parasite's presence Spain. Soja sampled tomato crops from the first days o f planting on- hispida lectin SBA - N-acetyl-galactosamineRicinus comunis ward.
The lectins the crop. It is known, however, that the tomato parasite P. In our first attempts to culture the flagellates using two different monophase media Grace's and SDMparasite growth was slow. Although motility of the para- sites was obvious after a few hours, most degenerated during these initial cultures.
Growth was exponential during the first days of culture, stationary on day 5, and slightly de- clined thereafter. The in vitro culture experiments showed that once they had adapted to both media, all the parasites devel- oped into elongated promastigote forms with twisted bodies and large flagella, forms without twisted bodies also being present.
The flagellates isolated from che- rimoya fruits were similar to those obtained from toma- toes mean cell length, l gm ; the mean flagellar length for both types was approximately btm Figs. These forms and values are similar to those report- ed by other authors for species isolated from tomatoes Jankevicius et al.
Using a transmission electron microscope, we detect- ed typical promastigote forms in all the preparations.Durgawale et. al. Erythrocyte agglutination pattern compared to other study group individuals.
~ the difference between HAU due to lectin. Agglutination, defined as a decreased numberoffree promastigotes compared with control, occurred with ConA, PNA, and RCAat lectin concentrations of.8,ug/ml, with. Agglutination reaction for confirmation of the lectin was performed using chicken erythrocytes.
Galactose-specific lectin coding protein was detected by optimized Polymerase Chain Reaction using a . For example, the lectin found in wheat has a different shape from the lectin found in soy, and attaches to a different combination of sugars; each of these foods is dangerous for some blood types, but can sometimes be beneficial for others.
the lectin is determined by the inhibition of the erythro-agglutination compared to the Concanavalin-A effects; Concanavalin-A is lectin obtained from Canavalia enseiformis specific to α .
We have investigated the relationship of concanavalin. A binding to the cell surface of normal and transformed cells and the subsequent agglutination of the transformed cells. At room temperature almost no differences could be detected in agglutinin binding between transformed and untransformed.