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Overview[ edit ] Managing large quantities of structured and unstructured data is a primary function of information systems. Data models describe the structure, manipulation and integrity aspects of the data stored in data management systems such as relational databases.
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They typically do not describe unstructured data, such as word processing documents, email messagespictures, digital audio, and video. The role of data models[ edit ] How data models deliver benefit  The main aim of data models is to support the development of information systems by providing the definition and format of data.
According to West and Fowler "if this is done consistently across systems then compatibility of data can be achieved. If the same data structures are used to store and access data then different applications can share data.
The results of this are indicated above.
However, systems and interfaces often cost more than they should, to build, operate, and maintain. They may also constrain the business rather than support it.
A major cause is that the quality of the data models implemented in systems and interfaces is poor". This means that small changes in the way business is conducted lead to large changes in computer systems and interfaces". This can lead to replication of data, data structure, and functionality, together with the attendant costs of that duplication in development and maintenance".
The result of this is that complex interfaces are required between systems that share data. For example, engineering design data and drawings for process plant are still sometimes exchanged on paper".
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Typical applications of data models include database models, design of information systems, and enabling exchange of data. Usually data models are specified in a data modeling language.
This shows that a data model can be an external model or viewa conceptual model, or a physical model. This is not the only way to look at data models, but it is a useful way, particularly when comparing models. For example, it may be a model of the interest area of an organization or industry.
This consists of entity classes, representing kinds of things of significance in the domain, and relationship assertions about associations between pairs of entity classes. A conceptual schema specifies the kinds of facts or propositions that can be expressed using the model.
In that sense, it defines the allowed expressions in an artificial 'language' with a scope that is limited by the scope of the model. This consists of descriptions of tables and columns, object oriented classes, and XML tags, among other things. This is concerned with partitions, CPUs, tablespaces, and the like.
The significance of this approach, according to ANSI, is that it allows the three perspectives to be relatively independent of each other. Storage technology can change without affecting either the logical or the conceptual model.
In each case, of course, the structures must remain consistent with the other model. Early phases of many software development projects emphasize the design of a conceptual data model.
Such a design can be detailed into a logical data model. In later stages, this model may be translated into physical data model. However, it is also possible to implement a conceptual model directly. History[ edit ] One of the earliest pioneering works in modelling information systems was done by Young and Kent  who argued for "a precise and abstract way of specifying the informational and time characteristics of a data processing problem".
They wanted to create "a notation that should enable the analyst to organize the problem around any piece of hardware ". Their work was a first effort to create an abstract specification and invariant basis for designing different alternative implementations using different hardware components.
This led to the development of a specific IS information algebra. According to Leondes"during that time, the information system provided the data and information for management purposes.MOBILE DATABASE SYSTEMS A THESIS IN Computer Science Presented to the Faculty of the University of Missouri-Kansas City in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree MASTER OF SCIENCE by ABHIRUCHI SINGH B.E., NATIONAL INSTITUTE .
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Mobile Databases Databases provide individuals and organizations the means to track various types of information.
According to Stephens (), “A database is a tool that accumulates information, and lets one produce, read, revise, and remove the data in some manner.” (p. 23) A mobile databases. The Gateway to Women's History is an online site providing electronic access to primary source materials from the Woman's Collection at Texas Woman's University.
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