Inwith the publication of our very first journal, CCHS has been successful in promoting a wider interest in local history. We strive to maintain the highest level of historical accuracy, thereby providing valuable information to historians and researchers. The journal covers not only the history and culture of Cumberland County in the nineteenth, twentieth and twenty-first centuries, but also includes features on our collections. Membership includes a subscription to Cumberland County History as well as the Newsletter.
The Chiricahua were divided into two groups after they were released from being prisoners of war. By the s, they applied the term to southern Athabaskan peoples from the Chama on the east to the San Juan on the west. The ultimate origin is uncertain and lost to Spanish history.
In early 20th century Parisian society, the word Apache was adopted into French, essentially meaning an outlaw. Difficulties in naming This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. October Learn how and when to remove this template message Many of the historical names of Apache groups that were recorded by non-Apache are difficult to match to modern-day tribes or their subgroups. Over the centuries, many Spanish, French and English-speaking authors did not differentiate between Apache and other semi-nomadic non-Apache peoples who might pass through the same area.
Most commonly, Europeans learned to identify the tribes by translating Research papers apache indians exonymwhat another group whom the Europeans encountered first called the Apache peoples. Europeans often did not learn what the peoples called themselves, their autonyms.
Essa-queta, Plains Apache chief While anthropologists agree on some traditional major subgrouping of Apaches, they have often used different criteria to name finer divisions, and these do not always match modern Apache groupings. Some scholars do not consider groups residing in what is now Mexico to be Apache.
In addition, an Apache individual has different ways of identification with a group, such as a band or clanas well as the larger tribe or language grouping, which can add to the difficulties in an outsider comprehending the distinctions.
Inthe U. The different groups were located in Arizona, New Mexico, and Oklahoma. In the s, the anthropologist Grenville Goodwin classified the Western Apache into five groups based on his informants' views of dialect and cultural differences: Since then, other anthropologists e. Albert Schroeder consider Goodwin's classification inconsistent with pre-reservation cultural divisions.
Willem de Reuse finds linguistic evidence supporting only three major groupings: John Upton Terrell classifies the Apache into western and eastern groups. Brugge identifies 15 tribal names which the Spanish used to refer to the Apache.
These were drawn from records of about baptisms from to The term Apache refers to six major Apache-speaking groups: Historically, the term was also used for ComanchesMojavesHualapaisand Yavapaisnone of whom speak Apache languages. Chiricahua Chiricahua historically lived in Southeastern Arizona.
The name is an autonym from the Chiricahua language. Gila refers to either the Gila River or the Gila Mountains. Some of the Gila Apaches were probably later known as the Mogollon Apaches, a Chiricahua sub-band, while others probably coalesced into the Chiricahua proper.
But, since the term was used indiscriminately for all Apachean groups west of the Rio Grande i. AfterSpanish documents start to distinguish between these different groups, in which case Apaches de Gila refers to the Western Apache living along the Gila River synonymous with Coyotero.
American writers first used the term to refer to the Mimbres another Chiricahua subdivision. Mogollon was considered by Schroeder to be a separate pre-reservation Chiricahua band, while Opler considered the Mogollon to be part of his Eastern Chiricahua band in New Mexico.
The term jicarilla comes from the Spanish word for "little gourd. Inthey joined the Cuartelejo and Paloma, and by the s, they lived with the Jicarilla. Parts of the group were called Lipiyanes or Llaneros.The above coins may or may not have come from a cache made by 4 outlaws who robbed the Sante Fe train in , 34 miles E of timberdesignmag.com loot was taken up Canyon Diablo to a cedar thicket where the spendable loot was divided and the diamond jewelry and separated rifles and watches buried on the rim.
International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) is an open access online peer reviewed international journal that publishes research. APACHE LANGUAGE & YAVAPAI LANGUAGE Official Language of Apache Nations & Tribes.
U.S. Census did not Specify between Western Apache, Lipan Apache or Kiowa Apache. If you need to write a research essay on Apache Native Americans, consider the 20 excellent topics below. Tiller, Veronica E. Velarde. The Jicarilla Apache Tribe: A History, Univ of Nebraska Pr, research papers, thesis papers, essays, dissertations and other custom writing services inclusive of research material, for.
American Memory is a gateway to rich primary source materials relating to the history and culture of the United States. The site offers more than 7 million digital items from more than historical collections.
The Apache Indians of North America prospered for years throughout Kansas, New Mexico, and Arizona. They were a religious society who believed in a “giver of life”.
As any complex society today, The Apache had many inter-tribal differences, although the tribe .