Campbell explores the life of Sam Houston and his important role in the development of the Southwest. Governor of two states, president of an independent republic, and for thirteen years a United States senator, Sam Houston forged a life of great adventure, frequent controversy, and lasting achievement.
Secession[ edit ] In the late winter ofTexan counties sent delegates to a special convention to debate the merits of secession.
The convention adopted an " Ordinance of Secession " by a vote of to 8, which was ratified by a popular referendum on February It accuses northern politicians and abolitionists of committing a variety of outrages upon Texans. The bulk of the document offers justifications for slavery saying that remaining a part of the United States would jeopardize the security of the two.
The declaration includes this extract praising slavery, in which the Union itself is referred to as the "confederacy": We hold as undeniable truths that the governments of the various States, and of the confederacy itself, were established exclusively by the white race, for themselves and their posterity; that the African race had no agency in their establishment; that they were rightfully held and regarded as an inferior and dependent race, and in that condition only could their existence in this country be rendered beneficial or tolerable.
Independence without slavery, would be valueless The South without slavery would not be worth a mess of pottage. By Februarythe other six states of the sub-region had separately passed ordinances of secession. However, events in Texas were delayed, largely due to the resistance of Southern Unionist governor, Sam Houston.
Unlike the other "cotton states"' chief executives, who took the initiative in secessionist efforts, Houston refused to call the Texas Legislature into special session to consider the question, relenting only when it became apparent citizens were prepared to act without him.
In early Decemberbefore South Carolina even seceded, a group of State officials published via newspaper a call for a statewide election of convention delegates on January 8, This election was highly irregular, even for the standards of the day.
It often relied on voice vote at public meetings, although " viva voce " voice voting for popular elections had been used since at least Marchless than three months after statehood.
This resulted in lopsided representation of secessionists delegates. Houston called the Legislature into session, hoping that the elected body would declare the unauthorized convention illegal. The convention removed Houston from the governorship, then promoted the Lieutenant Governor, Edward Clark.
The only stipulation was that the people of Texas have the final say in referendum. The following day, convention president Oran Roberts introduced a resolution suggesting Texas leave the Union. The ordinance was read on the floor the next day, citing the failures of the federal government to protect the lives and property of Texas citizens and accusing the Northern states of using the same as a weapon to "strike down the interests and prosperity"  of the Southern people.
After the grievances were listed, the ordinance repealed the one of July 4,in which Texas approved annexation by the United States and the Constitution of the United Statesand revoked all powers of, obligations to, and allegiance to, the U.
On February 1, members of the Legislature, and a huge crowd of private citizens, packed the House galleries and balcony to watch the final vote on the question of secession.
Seventy "yea" votes were recorded before there was a single "nay. James Webb Throckmortonfrom Collin County in North Texas, in response to the roar of hisses and boos and catcalls which greeted his decision, retorted, "When the rabble hiss, well may patriots tremble.
Other than in South Carolinawhere the vote was unanimous, this was the highest percentage of any other state of the Lower South.
On February 7, the Legislature ordered a referendum to be held on the ordinance under the direction of the convention. The last order of business was to appoint a delegation to represent Texas in Montgomery, Alabamawhere their counterparts from the other six seceding states were meeting to form a new Confederacy.
On March 4, the convention assembled again to formally declare Texas out of the Union and to approve the "Constitution of the Confederate States of America", which had been drawn up by its "Provisional Congress" as it turned out, Texas had already been admitted into the fold on March 1.
In March, George Williamson, the Louisianan state commissioner, addressed the Texan secession convention, where he called upon Texas and the slave states of the U.Sam Houston and the American Southwest by Randolph B.
Campbell; 1 edition; First published in Open Library is an initiative of the Internet Archive, a (c)(3) non-profit, building a digital library of Internet sites and other cultural artifacts in digital form.
The Powell Family Papers ( - ;.5 box) include family correspondence, newspaper clippings, biographical information, Sam Houston State Teachers College materials, and documents concerning the Powell family of Huntsville. In this biography, Randolph B. Campbell explores the life of Sam Houston and his important role in the development of the Southwest.
Paperback, brief, and inexpensive, each of the titles in the Library of American Biography Series focus on a figure whose actions and ideas significantly influenced the course of American history and national life.
(Digital History, University of Houston) Colonial North American Project at Harvard When complete, this project will make available to the world digitized images of all known archival and manuscript materials in the Harvard Library that relate to 17th and 18th century North America.
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