Inductive[ edit ] Also known as itemetric or internal consistency methods.
A good classroom test is valid and reliable. Validity is the quality of a test which measures what it is supposed to measure.
The reason(s) for giving a test will help you determine features such as length, format, level of detail required in answers, and the time frame for returning results to the students. Maintain consistency between goals for the course, methods of teaching, and the tests used to measure achievement of goals. Pre-employment testing provides concrete results that are standardized across. Psychology Definition of TEST CONSTRUCTION: the cultivation of a test, generally with a concise or obvious goal to meet the typical standards of validity, dependability, norms, and other aspects of t.
More simply, it is how one knows that a math test measures students' math ability, not their reading ability.
Another aspect of test validity of particular importance for classroom teachers is content-related validity. Do the items on a test fairly represent the items that could be on the test?
Reasonable sources for "items that should be on the Test construction are class objectives, key concepts covered in lectures, main ideas, and so on. Classroom teachers who want to make sure that they have a valid test from a content standpoint often construct a table of specifications which specifically lists what was taught and how many items on a test will cover those topics.
The table can even be shared with students to guide them in studying for the test and as an outline of what was most important in a unit or Test construction. Reliability is the quality of a test which produces scores that are not affected much by chance.
Students sometimes randomly miss a question they really knew the answer to or sometimes get an answer correct just by guessing; teachers can sometimes make an error or score inconsistently with subjectively scored tests.
These are problems of low reliability. Classroom teachers can solve the problem of low reliability in some simple ways. First, a test with many items will usually be more reliable than a shorter test, as whatever random fluctuations in performance occur over the course of a test will tend to cancel itself out across many items.
By the same token, a class grade will itself be more reliable if it reflects many different assignments or components. Second, the more objective a test is, the fewer random errors there will be in scoring, so teachers concerned about reliability are often drawn to objectively scored tests.
Even when using a subjective format, such as supply items, teachers often use a detailed scoring rubric to make the scoring as objective, and, therefore, as reliable as possible. Classroom tests can also be categorized based on what they are intended to measure.
Traditional paper-and-pencil classroom tests e. They are typically objectively scored a computer with an answer key could score it. Performance-based tests, sometimes called authentic or alternative tests, are best used to assess student skill or ability.
They are typically subjectively scored a teacher must apply some degree of opinion in evaluating the quality of a response.
Performance-based tests are discussed in a separate area on this website. Tests designed to measure knowledge are usually made up of a set of individual questions. Questions can be of two types: Scoring selection items is usually quicker and objective. Scoring supply items tends to take more time and is usually more subjective.
Sometimes teachers decide to use selection items when they are interested in measuring basic, lower levels of understanding at the knowledge or comprehension level in a Bloom's taxonomy sense, Bloom et al. Teacher-made tests can also be distinguished by when they are given and how the results are used.
Tests given at the end of a unit or semester or after learning has occurred are called summative tests. Their purpose is to assess learning and performance and usually affects a student's class grade. Tests can also be given while learning is occurring, and these are called formative tests.
Their purpose is to provide feedback, so students can adjust how they are learning or teachers can adjust how they are teaching. Usually these tests do not affect student grades. Most classroom assessment involves tests that teachers have constructed themselves. Further, teachers place more weight on their own tests in determining grades and student progress than they do on assessments designed by others or on other data sources Boothroyd, et al.
Indeed, most state certification systems and half of all teacher education programs have no assessment course requirement or even an explicit requirement that teachers have received training in assessment Boothroyd, et al. A quality teacher-made test should follow valid item-writing rules.
Even after half a century of psychometric theory and research, Cronbach bemoaned the almost complete lack of scholarly attention paid to achievement test items. The current empirical research literature for item-writing rules-of-thumb focuses on studies which look at the relationship between a given item format and either test performance or psychometric properties of the test related to the format choice.
There are some guidelines supported by experimental or quasi-experimental designs, but the foundation of best practices in this area remains, essentially, only recommendations of experts. Common sense, along with an understanding of the nature of the two characteristics of all quality tests validity and reliabilityprovides the framework that teachers use to make the best choices when designing student assessments.The reason(s) for giving a test will help you determine features such as length, format, level of detail required in answers, and the time frame for returning results to the students.
Maintain consistency between goals for the course, methods of teaching, and the tests used to measure achievement of goals. Test Construction. Most tests are a form of summative assessment; that is, they measure students’ performance on a given task.
(For more information on summative assessment, see the CITL resource on formative and summative assessment.)McKeachie () only half-jokes that “Unfortunately, it appears to be generally true that the examinations that are the easiest to construct are the most.
Test Preparation. Developing a solid understanding of the content and structure of the CAST exam is the first step toward entering the field of construction or advancing within it.
Design test items that allow students to show a range of learning. That is, students who have not fully mastered everything in the course should still be able to demonstrate how much they have learned.
Test construction 1. Introduction• Testing is generally concerned with turning performance into numbers • Baxten, • 13% of students who fail in class are caused by faulty test questions • World watch- The Philadelphia trumpet, • It is estimated that 90% of the testing items are out of quality • Wilen WW ()• The evaluation of pupils progress is a major aspect of.
the cultivation of a test, generally with a concise or obvious goal to meet the typical standards of validity, dependability, norms, and other aspects of test standardization.