With reference to specific countries describe

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With reference to specific countries describe

Definition[ edit ] In surveying and geodesya datum is a reference system or an approximation of the Earth's surface against which positional measurements are made for computing locations.


Horizontal datums are used for describing a point on the Earth 's surface, in latitude and longitude or another coordinate system. Vertical datums are used to measure elevations or underwater depths. Horizontal datum[ edit ] The horizontal datum is the model used to measure positions on the Earth.

A specific point on the Earth can have substantially different coordinates, depending on the datum used to make the measurement. There are hundreds of local horizontal datums around the world, usually referenced to some convenient local reference point. Contemporary datums, based on increasingly accurate measurements of the shape of the Earth, are intended to cover larger areas.

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Chart datum Vertical datums in Europe A vertical datum is used as a reference point for elevations of surfaces and features on the Earth including terrain, bathymetry, water levels, and man-made structures. Vertical datums are either: For the purpose of measuring the height of objects on land, the usual datum used is mean sea level MSL.

This is a tidal datum which is described as the arithmetic mean of the hourly water elevation taken over a specific 19 years cycle. This definition averages out tidal highs and lows caused by the gravitational effects of the sun and the moon and short term variations.

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It will not remove the effects of local gravity strength, and so the height of MSL, relative to a geodetic datum, will vary around the world, and even around one country. For example, in Great Britain, the national vertical datum, Ordnance Datum Newlyn, is based on what was mean sea level at Newlyn in Cornwall between and A different principle is used when choosing a datum for nautical charts.

For safety reasons, a mariner must be able to know the minimum depth of water that could occur at any point.

For this reason, depths and tides on a nautical chart are measured relative to chart datumwhich is defined to be a level below which tide rarely falls. Exactly how this is chosen depends on the tidal regime in the area being charted and on the policy of the hydrographic office producing the chart in question; a typical definition is Lowest Astronomical Tide the lowest tide predictable from the effects of gravityor Mean Lower Low Water the average lowest tide of each dayalthough MSL is sometimes used in waters with very low tidal ranges.

Conversely, if a ship is to safely pass under a low bridge or overhead power cable, the mariner must know the minimum clearance between the masthead and the obstruction, which will occur at high tide.

Consequently, bridge clearances etc. Sea level does not remain constant throughout geological timeand so tidal datums are less useful when studying very long-term processes. In some situations sea level does not apply at all — for instance for mapping Mars' surface — forcing the use of a different "zero elevation", such as mean radius.

A geodetic vertical datum takes some specific zero point, and computes elevations based on the geodetic model being used, without further reference to sea levels. Usually, the starting reference point is a tide gauge, so at that point the geodetic and tidal datums might match, but due to sea level variations, the two scales may not match elsewhere.

Note that the " flatness " of the spheroid orange in the image is greater than that of the Earth; as a result, the corresponding difference between the "geodetic" and "geocentric" latitudes is also exaggerated.A.

A1C A form of hemoglobin used to test blood sugars over a period of time.

With reference to specific countries describe

ABCs of Behavior An easy method for remembering the order of behavioral components: Antecedent, Behavior, Consequence. See Chapter timberdesignmag.com for additional guidance on the mentoring and data management plan requirements for collaborative proposals.

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NSF will combine the proposal submission for printing or electronic viewing. To submit the collaborative proposal, the following process must be completed: 29 (i) Each non-lead organization must assign their proposal a proposal PIN.

Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for causes of death, – a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 49 General notes The following summary tables represent the best estimates of WHO for a broad range of key public health indicators – based on evidence available in A geodetic datum or geodetic system is a coordinate system, and a set of reference points, used to locate places on the Earth (or similar objects).

An approximate definition of sea level is the datum WGS 84, an ellipsoid, whereas a more accurate definition is Earth Gravitational Model (EGM), using at least 2, spherical timberdesignmag.com datums are defined for other areas or at other.

This document describes the definitions for protocol registration data elements submitted to timberdesignmag.com for interventional studies (clinical trials) and observational studies.

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